A combination of cytogenetic and bioinformatic procedures was used to test the chromosomal phylogeny relating Drosophila buzzatii with D. repleta. Chromosomes X and 2, harboring most of the inversions fixed between these two species, were analyzed. First, chromosomal segments conserved during the divergence of the two species were identified by comparative in situ hybridization to the D. repleta chromosomes of 180 BAC clones from a BAC-based physical map of the D. buzzatii genome. These conserved segments were precisely delimited with the aid of clones containing inversion breakpoints. Then GRIMM software was used to estimate the minimum number of rearrangements necessary to transform one genome into the other and identify all possible rearrangement scenarios. Finally, the most plausible inversion trajectory was tested by hybridizing 12 breakpoint-bearing BAC clones to the chromosomes of seven other species in the repleta group. The results show that chromosomes X and 2 of D. buzzatii and D. repleta differ by 12 paracentric inversions. Nine of them are fixed in chromosome 2 and entail two breakpoint reuses. Our results also show that the cytological relationship between D. repleta and D. mercatorum is closer than that between D. repleta and D. peninsularis, and we propose that the phylogenetic relationships in this lineage of the repleta group be reconsidered. We also estimated the rate of rearrangement between D. repleta and D. buzzatii and conclude that rates within the genus Drosophila vary substantially between lineages, even within a single species group. Copyright © 2007 by the Genetics Society of America.