© 2017 Future Medicine Ltd. Aim: Since controversial results have been obtained in studies dealing with nanoceria usefulness in biomedical applications, the transforming effects of long-term exposure to nanoceria in lung epithelial cells, alone or together with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), were evaluated. Materials & methods: In vitro cell transformation techniques were used to study several hallmarks of carcinogenesis. Morphology, cell proliferation, gene expression, cell migration, anchorage-independent cell growth and cell secretome were analyzed. Results & conclusion: Data evidence no transforming ability of nanoceria, but support a synergistic role on CSC's transforming ability. A more noticeable spindle-like phenotype, increased proliferation rate, higher degree of differentiation status dysregulation, higher migration capacity, increased anchorage-independent cell growth and higher levels of MMP-9 and cell growth promoting capability, were observed. In addition, nanoceria co-exposure exacerbates the expression of FRA-1.
- CeO NP 2
- cell transformation
- cigarette smoke condensate co-exposure
- lung BEAS-2B cells
- nanoceria in vitro long-term exposure