The survival and infectivity of the infective juveniles of two species of entomo pathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), were determined after exposure for 72 h to two concentrations of the herbicides glyphosate and MCPA, as well as to the combination of the two herbicides (glyphosate + MCPA). For all herbicide treatments, concentrations and exposure times, S. feltiae was more tolerant to the herbicides than H. bacteriophora. The exposure of entomopatho genic nematodes to glyphosate + MCPA caused significantly higher mortality (26.33-57.33%) than glyphosate (0.67-15%) or MCPA (2.33-19%) alone. These results confirm the synergistic effect of the glyphosate + MCPA combination on the mortality in these nematodes. Nematode infectivity of Galleria mellonella larvae in response to the herbicides presence was evaluated in Petri dish assays containing sterile sand. Nematode infectivity was not significantly reduced by exposure to herbicides in S. feltiae but H. bacteriophora was less tolerant. Synergistic effect was obtained in the nematode mortality test but no synergistic effect was observed in the nematode infectivity assay. Our results suggest that possible synergistic effects of agrochemicals on survival of nematodes should be tested before mixing with entomopathogenic nematodes. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
- Synergistic effect