Syndromic surveillance for West Nile virus using raptors in rehabilitation

Alba Ana, M. Perez Andrés, Ponder Julia, Puig Pedro, Wünschmann Arno, Vander Waal Kimberly, Alvarez Julio, Willette Michelle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


© 2017 L'Association pour l'Etude de l'Epidemiologie des Maladies Animales. All rights reserved. Wildlife rehabilitation centers routinely gather health-related data from diverse species. Their capability to signal the occurrence of emerging pathogens and improve traditional surveillance remains largely unexplored. This paper assessed the utility for syndromic surveillance of raptors admitted to The Raptor Center (TRC) to signal circulation of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Minnesota, USA, between 1990 and 2014. An exhaustive descriptive analysis using grouping time series structures and models of interrupted times series was conducted for indicator subsets. Results indicated that temporal patterns of accessions at the TRC changed distinctively after the incursion of WNV in 2002, suggesting that monitoring of hawks admitted to TRC with WNV-like signs could serve as an indicator of WNV circulation. These conclusions were also supported by the results of laboratory diagnosis. Thus, we demonstrate that monitoring of data routinely collected by wildlife rehabilitation centers has the potential to signal the spread of pathogens that may affect wild, domestic animals and humans, thus supporting the early detection of disease incursions in a region and monitoring of disease trends. Ultimately, data collected in rehabilitation centers may provide insights to efficiently allocate financial and human resources on disease prevention and surveillance.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMC veterinary research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 29 Nov 2017


  • Big data
  • Raptors
  • Syndromic surveillance
  • Time series
  • West Nile
  • Wildlife rehabilitation


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