Dibutyryl cyclic AMP, in a concentration-dependent manner, increased synaptosomal (Ca2+Mg2+)-ATPase activity, but in synaptic plasma membranes lacked any effect. The maximal enzyme activity in synaptosomes was increased by 38%, leaving unaltered the extrasynaptosomal Ca2+ concentration necessary to reach it. In the presence of 5 μM cyclic AMP, cyclic AMPependent protein kinase increased (30%) maximal (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase activity in synaptic plasma membranes, but the apparent affinity for Ca2+ was not modified. This effect was partially inhibited (60%) by a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor. The data suggest that synaptosomal (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase activity is modulated by a cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation reaction. © 1989.