Switchless multiplexing of graphene active sensor arrays for brain mapping

Ramon Garcia-Cortadella, Nathan Schäfer, Jose Cisneros-Fernandez, Lucia Ré, Xavi Illa, Gerrit Schwesig, Ana Moya, Sara Santiago, Gonzalo Guirado, Rosa Villa, Anton Sirota, Francesc Serra-Graells, Jose A. Garrido*, Anton Guimerà-Brunet

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Sensor arrays used to detect electrophysiological signals from the brain are paramount in neuroscience. However, the number of sensors that can be interfaced with macroscopic data acquisition systems currently limits their bandwidth. This bottleneck originates in the fact that, typically, sensors are addressed individually, requiring a connection for each of them. Herein, we present the concept of frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) of neural signals by graphene sensors. We demonstrate the high performance of graphene transistors as mixers to perform amplitude modulation (AM) of neural signals in situ, which is used to transmit multiple signals through a shared metal line. This technology eliminates the need for switches, remarkably simplifying the technical complexity of state-of-the-art multiplexed neural probes. Besides, the scalability of FDM graphene neural probes has been thoroughly evaluated and their sensitivity demonstrated in vivo. Using this technology, we envision a new generation of high-count conformal neural probes for high bandwidth brain machine interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3528-3537
Number of pages10
JournalNano Letters
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2020


  • Active sensors
  • Bioelectronics
  • Graphene
  • Multiplexing
  • Neural sensing


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