Swine torque teno virus (TTV) infection and excretion dynamics in conventional pig farms

M. Sibila, L. Martínez-Guinó, E. Huerta, A. Llorens, M. Mora, L. Grau-Roma, T. Kekarainen, J. Segalés

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46 Citations (Scopus)


Torque teno virus (TTV) is a non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus infecting human and non-primate species. Two genogroups of TTV (TTV1 and TTV2) have been described in swine so far. In the present study, TTV1 and TTV2 prevalences in serum, and nasal as well as rectal swabs of 55 randomly selected piglets from seven Spanish multi-site farms, were monitored from 1 to 15 weeks of age. Also, blood from their dams (n = 41) were taken at 1 week post-farrowing. Samples were tested by means of two TTV genogroup specific PCRs. Although prevalence of TTV1 and TTV2 in sows was relatively high (54% and 32%, respectively), it was not directly associated to their prevalence in the offspring. Percentage of viremic pigs for both TTV genogroups followed similar dynamics, increasing progressively over time, with the highest rate of detection at 11 weeks of age for TTV1 and at 15 weeks for TTV2. Forty-two (76%) and 33 (60%) of the 55 studied pigs were TTV1 and TTV2 PCR positive in serum, respectively, in more than one sampling time. TTV1 and TTV2 viremia lasted in a number of animals up to 15 and 8 weeks, respectively. Co-infection with both TTV genogroups in serum was detected at all sampling points, but at 1 week of age. On the contrary, there were animals PCR negative to both genogroups in serum at all sampling times but at 15 weeks of age. During the study period, TTV1 and TTV2 nasal shedding increased also over time and faecal excretion was intermittent and of low percentage (<20%). In conclusion, the present study describes for the first time the infection dynamics of TTV1 and TTV2 as well as the nasal and faecal excretion throughout the life of pigs from conventional, multi-site farms. Moreover, results indicate that both swine TTV genogroups are able to establish persistent infections in a number of pigs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-218
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - 18 Nov 2009


  • Infection dynamics
  • Nasal swab
  • Pig
  • Rectal swab
  • Serum
  • Torque teno virus (TTV)


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