Subtyping study of a pathological gamblers sample

Eva Ma Álvarez-Moya, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Ma Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Roser Granero, Juanjo Santamaría, Jose M. Menchón, Fernando Fernández-Aranda

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48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To classify into subgroups a sample of pathological gambling (PG) patients according to personality variables and to describe the subgroups at a clinical level. Method: PG patients (n = 1171) were assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen; the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised; the Symptom Checklist-90 - Revised; Eysenck's Impulsivity Scales, a diagnostic questionnaire for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) PG criteria; and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, Axis I disorders, substance use module. Clinical measures were collected through a semi-structured interview. We performed a 2-step cluster analysis based on the above-mentioned personality variables. Clinical data were compared across clusters. Results: Four clusters were generated. Type I (disorganized and emotionally unstable) showed schizotypic traits, high impulsiveness, substance and alcohol abuse, and early age of onset, as well as psychopathological disturbances. Type II (schizoid) showed high harm avoidance, social aloofness, and alcohol abuse. Type III (reward sensitive) showed high sensation seeking and impulsiveness but no psychopathological impairments. Type IV (high-functioning) showed a globally adaptive personality profile, low level of substance and alcohol abuse or smoking, and no psychopathological disturbances. Conclusions: At least 4 types of PG patients may be identified. Two types showed a response modulation deficit, but only one of them had severe psychopathological disturbances. Two other types showed no impulsiveness or sensation seeking and one of them even exhibited good general functioning. The different personality and clinical configuration of these clusters might be linked to different therapeutic approaches.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-506
JournalCanadian Journal of Psychiatry
Volume55
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010

Keywords

  • Alcohol abuse
  • Harm avoidance
  • Impulsiveness
  • Pathological gambling
  • Personality
  • Sensation seeking
  • Substance abuse
  • Subtypes

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