Subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing in immersive environments: Results from a focus group

Belén Agulló, Anna Matamala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearch

12 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019 University of Roehampton. All rights reserved. Immersive media such as virtual reality or 360ºcontent is increasingly present in our society. However, immersive content is not always accessible to all, and research is needed on how to cater for the needs of different kinds of users. This article will review the current situation of immersive technologies and their applications in media. Also, research studies carried out so far concerning subtitling and SDH in immersive media will be discussed, as well as current implementation of subtitles in immersive content, such as VR video games or 360ºvideos. Finally, the results from a focus group carried out in Spain with deaf and hard-of-hearing users, as well as professional subtitlers, on how to subtitle 360ºvideo content will be presented. The results from the focus group shed light on how to address the new implications brought by immersive media in regard to subtitling. Some of the main areas discussed in the results are: subtitle position, contrast considerations for a correct reading, and how to indicate the location of the speakers, among others. Also, results show that users are willing to accept the implementation of new features in SDH in immersive content, such as icons for non-speech information or improvements to current standards.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-235
JournalJournal of Specialised Translation
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • 360ºcontent
  • Focus group
  • Immersive content
  • SDH
  • Subtitles
  • Subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing
  • Virtual reality


Dive into the research topics of 'Subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing in immersive environments: Results from a focus group'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this