Subcutaneous granuloma annulare is a rare clinicopathologic variant of granuloma annulare, characterized by subcutaneous nodules that may appear alone or in association with intradermal lesions. The pathogenesis of this deep variant of granuloma annulare remains uncertain. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare appears more frequently in children and young adults, and the lesions consist of subcutaneous nodules with no inflammatory appearance at the skin surface, most commonly located on the anterior aspects of the lower legs, hands, head, and buttocks. Usually, subcutaneous granuloma annulare is an authentic and exclusive panniculitic process with no dermal participation, although in 25% of the patients lesions of subcutaneous granuloma annulare coexist with the classic findings of granuloma annulare in the dermis. Histopathologically, subcutaneous granuloma annulare consist of areas of basophilic degeneration of collagen bundles with peripheral palisading granulomas involving the connective tissue septa of the subcutis. Usually, the area of necrobiosis in subcutaneous granuloma annulare is larger than in the dermal counterpart. The central necrobiotic areas contain increased amounts of connective tissue mucin and nuclear dust from neutrophils between the degenerated collagen bundles. Eosinophils are more common in subcutaneous granuloma annulare than in the dermal counterpart. There are not descriptions of subcutaneous granuloma annulare showing a histopathologic pattern of the so-called incomplete or interstitial variant. Histopathologic differential diagnosis of subcutaneous granuloma annulare includes rheumatoid nodule, necrobiosis lipoidica and epithelioid sarcoma. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- benign rheumatoid nodules
- deep granuloma annulare
- palisading granuloma
- pseudorrheumatoid nodules
- subcutaneous granuloma annulare