© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. To further explore the potential role of sST2 in the progression of cardiac disease, this section reviews both the associations with cross-sectional findings and longitudinal changes in cardiac structure and function measured by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with sST2 levels in a variety of patient populations with or at-risk for cardiovascular disease. In a Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Investigation of Dyspnea in the Emergency Department substudy in patients with acute dyspnea, sST2 levels were found associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and both estimated right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure and RV hypokinesis. In a large cohort of ambulatory patients referred for echocardiograms, sST2 was predominantly associated with RV and not LV structural findings. In contrast, in the Framingham Heart Study, a community cohort of >3,300 participants, sST2 was not associated with either echocardiographic finding, although in the Cardiovascular Health Study, sST2 appeared strongly associated with the presence of diastolic dysfunction. Little evidence exists on the relation of sST2 levels with longitudinal change in cardiac structure and function. A substudy of Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) evaluated the association among LV remodeling (defined as an increase in LV end-systolic and -diastolic volumes), sST2, and the benefit of eplerenone and found that sST2 levels were good surrogates of left ventricular remodeling. In the same line, the ProBNP Outpatient Tailored Chronic Heart Failure (PROTECT) study found that more time spent with an sST2 level less than the cutoff of 35 ng/L identified patients with a greater probability of a decrease in LV diastolic index over 1 year.