© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Seiridium cardinale, the main fungal pathogen responsible for cypress bark canker, is the largest threat to cypresses worldwide. The terpene response of canker-resistant clones of Italian cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, to two differently aggressive isolates of S. cardinale was studied. Phloem terpene concentrations, foliar terpene concentrations, as well as foliar terpene emission rates were analyzed 1, 10, 30, and 90 days after artificial inoculation with fungal isolates. The phloem surrounding the inoculation point exhibited de novo production of four oxygenated monoterpenes and two unidentified terpenes. The concentrations of several constitutive mono- and diterpenes increased strongly (especially α-thujene, sabinene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, oxygenated monoterpenes, manool, and two unidentified diterpenes) as the infection progressed. The proportion of minor terpenes in the infected cypresses increased markedly from the first day after inoculation (from 10 % in the control to 30–50 % in the infected treatments). Foliar concentrations showed no clear trend, but emission rates peaked at day 10 in infected trees, with higher δ-3-carene (15-fold) and total monoterpene (10-fold) emissions than the control. No substantial differences were found among cypresses infected by the two fungal isolates. These results suggest that cypresses activate several direct and indirect chemical defense mechanisms after infection by S. cardinale.
|Journal||Journal of Chemical Ecology|
|Publication status||Published - 30 Mar 2015|
- De novo
- Oxygenated monoterpenes
- cypress bark canker