Stripping voltammetry with bismuth modified graphite-epoxy composite electrodes

Ülkü Anik Kirgöz, Sergi Marín, Martin Pumera, Arben Merkoçi, Salvador Alegret

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


The attractive performance of graphite-epoxy composite electrodes (GECE) surface-modified with a bismuth film (Bi-GECE) for simultaneous and separate stripping determination of trace amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium and zinc) is described. Several key parameters have been optimized. Bi-GECEi electrode shows superior accumulation properties when compared to bare GECE or even to Hg-GECE. Bi-GECE exhibits well-defined, undistorted, reproducible and sharp stripping signals with RSD of 2.99%, 1.56% and 2.19% for lead, cadmium and zinc respectively. Detection limits of 23.1, 2.2 and 600 μg/L for lead, cadmium and zinc were obtained. Sharp peaks with high resolution (of neighboring signals) that permit convenient multi-elemental measurements resulted. The applicability of the electrodes to the real samples (tap water and soil sample) was also tested and promising results with good recoveries were obtained. © 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)881-886
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2005


  • Bismuth film
  • Cadmium
  • Graphite-epoxy composite electrode
  • Lead
  • Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry
  • Zinc


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