As in other vertebrates, fish experience stressful situations after exposure to both abiotic and biotic noxious stimuli. The current procedures used in aquacultured fish may also induce stress responses that involve neuroendocrine activation and a number of physiological, metabolic, molecular, and genetic changes. The causes for these changes are due to stress messengers and physiological responses designed to overcome the altered situation. Thus, in this chapter, the physiology of the stress response, including stress perception, the nature of the response, the molecular and neuroendocrine activation, the metabolic and energetic arrangements, and the regulation of the response are presented with particular reference to sparid fishes. Furthermore, aspects related to the concept of fish welfare will be also discussed in the present chapter. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
|Title of host publication||Sparidae: Biology and Aquaculture of Gilthead Sea Bream and other Species|
|Number of pages||19|
|Publication status||Published - 18 Feb 2011|
- Fish welfare
- Neuroendocrine response
- Stress indicators