Stress and immune modulation in fish

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567 Citations (Scopus)


Stress is an event that most animals experience and that induces a number of responses involving all three regulatory systems, neural, endocrine and immune. When the stressor is acute and short-term, the response pattern is stimulatory and the fish immune response shows an activating phase that specially enhances innate responses. If the stressor is chronic the immune response shows suppressive effects and therefore the chances of an infection may be enhanced. In addition, coping with the stressor imposes an allostatic cost that may interfere with the needs of the immune response. In this paper the mechanisms behind these immunoregulatory changes are reviewed and the role of the main neuroendocrine mechanisms directly affecting the building of the immune response and their consequences are considered. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1366-1375
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


  • Cortisol
  • Cytokines
  • HPI axis
  • Hormones
  • Immune suppression
  • Neuro-immune-endocrine interaction
  • Stress


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