We compared the epidemiological data, clinical features and mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella in HIV-infected patients and determined discriminative features. An observational, comparative study was performed (January 1994 to December 2004) in 15 HIV patients with CAP by Legionella and 46 by S. pneumoniae. No significant differences were observed in delay until initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Smoking, cancer and chemotherapy were more frequent in patients with Legionella pneumonia (p=0.03, p=0.00009 and p=0.01). Patients with Legionella pneumonia had a higher mean CD4 count (p=0.04), undetectable viral load (p=0.01) and received highly active antiretroviral therapy more frequently (p=0.004). AIDS was more frequent in patients with S. pneumoniae pneumonia (p=0.03). Legionella pneumonia was more severe (p=0.007). Extrarespiratory symptoms, hyponatraemia and increased creatine phosphokinase were more frequent in Legionella pneumonia (p=0.02, p=0.002 and p=0.006). Respiratory failure, need for ventilation and bilateral chest X-ray involvement were of note in the Legionella group (p=0.003, p=0.002 and p=0.002). Mortality tended to be higher in the Legionella group (6.7 vs 2.2%). In conclusion, CAP by Legionella has a higher morbimortality than CAP by S. pneumoniae in HIV-infected patients. Detailed analysis of CAP presentation features allows suspicion of Legionnaires'disease in this subset.
|Journal||Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases|
|Publication status||Published - 26 Feb 2007|