Spending programs: A tool for flexible micropayments

Josep Domingo-Ferrer, Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Micropayments are electronic payments of small amount. Given their low value, the cost of the corresponding electronic transactions should also be kept low. Current micropayment schemes allow a regular amount of money withdrawn from a bank to be split into fixed-value coupons, each of which is used for one micropayment. A more flexible mechanism is proposed in this paper, whereby coupons of variable value can be generated by a spending program without increasing the transaction cost. Moreover, the spending program allows one of several alternative ways of splitting the amount withdrawn into re-usable coupons to be selected in real-time.


    • Electronic commerce
    • Hash chain
    • Hash functions
    • Micropayments
    • Spending program


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