© 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. This chapter provides a detailed overview of some of the primary spectroscopic methods that have contributed to the current understanding of molecular nanomagnets (MNs). These include: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR); optical spectroscopy, including magnetic and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (MCD/XMCD); inelastic neutron scattering (INS); and muon spin rotation (μ +SR). For each technique, a historical survey of the most important discoveries is provided, up to and including the most recent developments. Each section gives an introduction to the theoretical principles underpinning the techniques, as well as a description of experimental requirements and protocols. A common theme among the described spectroscopies is the fact that state-of-the-art measurements typically have to be performed at major research facilities such as synchrotrons (terahertz EPR and XMCD), high magnetic field laboratories (EPR), and accelerator facilities or reactors (INS and μ +SR). Details of such facilities are given where appropriate. Forefront issues that are addressed in the chapter include: the fundamental properties of both mono- and poly-nuclear single-molecule magnets (SMMs); the deployment of MNs in quantum information processing applications; the addressing of individual magnetic molecules on surfaces or in devices; the probing of spin dynamics in MNs using EPR, INS, and μ +SR; and studies of long-range magnetic ordering in MN crystals. An extensive list of references is provided. The chapter is intended for physicists, chemists, and materials scientists, particularly junior researchers who are just starting work in the field.
- Electron paramagnetic resonance
- Inelastic neutron scattering
- Magnetic circular dichroism
- Muon spin rotation
- X-ray magnetic circular dichroism