© 2019, Springer Nature B.V. The species diversity of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Lepidapediae) in the Western Mediterranean was assessed based on samples from five deep-sea gadiform fishes collected between the Balearic Islands and the Catalonian coast of Spain: Lepidion lepidion (Risso) and Mora moro (Risso) (both Moridae); Coelorinchus mediterraneus Iwamoto & Ungaro and Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque) (both Macrouridae); and Phycis blennoides (Brünnich) (Phycidae). Integration of morphological and molecular evidence (28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial nad1 gene) revealed that the deep-sea fishes in the Western Mediterranean share two species of Lepidapedon. Lepidapedon desclersae Bray & Gibson, 1995 was recovered in all five fish species of three families [Moridae (L. lepidion and M. moro); Macrouridae (C. mediterraneus and T. scabrus); and Phycidae (P. blennoides)] and L. guevarai Lopez-Roman & Maillard, 1973 was recovered in three fish species of three families [Phycidae (P. blennoides); Macrouridae (T. scabrus); and Moridae (L. lepidion)]. Therefore, both species are considered to be euryxenic but restricted to gadiforms. The voucher material for the two species from different fish hosts is described in detail and the host-related variability based on the morphometric data is assessed.