Background: The Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) has been the most widely used scale to quantify premorbid status in schizophrenia, coming to be regarded as the gold standard of retrospective assessment instruments. Aims: To examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the PAS (PAS-S). Method: Retrospective study of 140 individuals experiencing a first episode of psychosis (n = 77) and individuals who have schizophrenia (n = 63), both adult and adolescent patients. Data were collected through a socio-demographic questionnaire and a battery of instruments which includes the following scales: PAS-S, PANSS, LSP, GAF and DAS-sv. The Cronbach's alpha was performed to assess the internal consistency of PAS-S. Pearson's correlations were performed to assess the convergent and discriminant validity. Results: The Cronbach's alpha of the PAS-S scale was 0.85. The correlation between social PAS-S and total PAS-S was 0.85 (p < 0.001); while for academic PAS-S and total PAS-S it was 0.53 (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were observed between all the scores of each age period evaluated across the PAS-S scale, with a significance value less than 0.001. There was a relationship between negative symptoms and social PAS-S (0.20, p < 0.05) and total PAS-S (0.22, p < 0.05), but not with academic PAS-S. However, there was a correlation between academic PAS-S and general subscale of the PANSS (0.19, p < 0.05). Social PAS-S was related to disability measures (DAS-sv); and academic PAS-S showed discriminant validity with most of the variables of social functioning. PAS-S did not show association with the total LSP scale (discriminant validity). Conclusion: The Spanish version of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale showed appropriate psychometric properties in patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis and who have a chronic evolution of the illness. Moreover, each domain of the PAS-S (social and academic premorbid functioning) showed a differential relationship to other characteristics such as psychotic symptoms, disability or social functioning after onset of illness. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.