Spanish adaptation and validation of the Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ) on the use of physical restraints on the elderly

Emilio Fariña-López, G. J. Estévez-Guerra, E. Núñez González, F. Calvo Francés, E. Penelo

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5 Citations (Scopus)


© 2016, Gobierno de Navarra. All rights reserved. Background. To adapt and to validate in a Spanish population the Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ), which assesses the importance that professionals give to the use of physical restraints when caring for older adults. Methods. After a process of forward-back translation and linguistic adaptation, a Spanish version of the original questionnaire was obtained. A descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study was then carried out. Based on non-probability sampling, 20 centers from three Spanish regions were selected; 830 professionals agreed to participate. Results. 15 of the 17 items of the original questionnaire were translated literally and two required minor modifications. All were considered acceptable by an expert panel (content validity index of 0.89); a pilot study confirmed the adequate feasibility of the questionnaire. The principal components analysis identified three dimensions that explained 66.2% of variance. The confirmatory factor analysis of this tridimensional model showed an acceptable fit [CFI = 0.936; RMSEA = 0.080], being factor loadings and factor correlations statistically significant (p<0.001). The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) for the total score was 0.92 and the test-retest reliability (ICCa) was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.92) over an interval of three weeks. Conclusions. The Spanish version of the PRUQ shows good psychometric characteristics and is adapted to the cultural context of this country. It may be considered a useful tool to assess in which situations professionals consider the use of physical restraints most necessary, helping to design training activities aimed at rationalizing its application.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-22
JournalAnales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016


  • Elder
  • Perception
  • Physical restraint
  • Questionnaires
  • Validation studies


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