Defatted untoasted soybean cotyledons and hulls were fractionated as water solutes (WSc and WSh) and water unextractable (WUc and WUh). Further fractionation of WUc through deproteinization yielded the isolation of a water unextractable solid (WUS) fraction that was mainly composed (molar percent) of galactose (28.1%), glucose (27.8%), arabinose (13.3%), and uronic acids (17.6%), which accounted for 76% of the water insoluble polysaccharides in soybean cotyledons (WUc). The cell wall (WUS) was sequentially fractionated with chelating agents (chelating agent soluble solids, ChSS) and a gradient of agents (dilute alkali, DASS; 1 M alkali, 1MASS; and 4M alkali, 4MASS), which gave a final cellulosic residue. The ChSS and DASS extracts were characterized as pectin-rich fractions, whereas 1MASS and 4MASS were hemicellulose- and cellulose-rich fractions. Incubation in vitro of the WUc fraction with pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase resulted in the release of low amounts (not more than 5% bound basis) of monosaccharides, mostly uronic acids, xylose, and arabinose. Protein extraction hardly increased this release after enzymatic incubation (<7%). However, progressive fractionation of the cell wall matrix markedly increased the release of monosaccharides from pectin-(ChSS and DASS) and hemicellulose-rich fractions (1MASS and 4MASS). Significant degradation of cellulose (up.to 20%) was achieved only after complete protein, pectin, and hemicellulose extraction.
- Cell wall components
- Soybean meal