For safe biosolid-land-applying, sludge should be contaminant-free. However, it may contain important amounts of micropollutants, not removed in the wastewater-treatment-processes. An alternative treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor was applied in sterile solid-phase systems consisting of sludge and a lignocellulosic substrate. Fungal colonization and activity were demonstrated during the process, according to monitoring of ergosterol, laccase activity and the naproxen-degradation test (ND24). Fourteen out of 43 analyzed pharmaceuticals were found in the raw sludge. After treatment, phenazone, bezafibrate, fenofibrate, cimetidine, clarithromycin, sulfamethazine and atenolol were completely removed, while removals between 42% and 80% were obtained for the remaining pharmaceuticals. Toxicological analyses (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and seed germination) showed an important reduction in sludge toxicity after treatment. Results suggest that a solid-phase treatment with T. versicolor may reduce the ecotoxicological impact of micropollutants present in sewage sludge. This is the first report of a fungal-approach for elimination of emerging pollutants from biosolids. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
- Sewage sludge
- Trametes versicolor