Socioeconomic status and its association with the risk of developing hip fractures: A region-wide ecological study

Carlen Reyes, Maria García-Gil, Josep Maria Elorza, Francesc Fina-Avilés, Leonardo Mendez-Boo, Eduardo Hermosilla, Ermengol Coma, Cristina Carbonell, Manuel Medina-Peralta, Rafel Ramos, Bonaventura Bolibar, Adolfo Díez-Pérez, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra

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19 Citations (Scopus)


© 2014 Elsevier Inc. To determine the association between socioeconomic deprivation (SES) and hip fracture risk. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using a population-based database (primary care records) of over 5 million people. Eligibility: all living subjects registered during the period 2009-2012 and resident in an urban area. Measures: a validated SES composite index (proportion of unemployed, temporary workers, manual workers, low educational attainment and low educational attainment among youngsters) estimated for each area based on census data. Outcome: incident hip fracture rates as coded in medical records using ICD-10 codes. Statistics: zero-inflated Poisson models fitted to study the association between SES quintiles and hip fracture risk, adjusted for age, sex, obesity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results: Compared to the most deprived, wealthy areas had a higher hip fracture incidence (age- and sex-adjusted incidence 38.57 (37.14-40.00) compared to 34.33 (32.90-35.76) per 10,000 person-years). Similarly, most deprived areas had a crude and age- and sex-adjusted lower risk of hip fracture, RR of 0.71 (0.65-0.78) and RR of 0.90 (0.85-0.95), respectively, compared to wealthiest areas. The association was attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for obesity: RR 0.96 (0.90-1.01). Further adjustment for smoking and high alcohol consumption did not make a difference. Conclusion: Wealthiest areas have an almost 30% increased risk of hip fracture compared to the most deprived. Differences in age-sex composition and a higher prevalence of obesity in deprived areas could explain this higher risk.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-131
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2015


  • Epidemiologic research design
  • Hip fracture
  • Osteoporosis
  • Social class


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