Sleeve gastrectomy effects on hunger, satiation, and gastrointestinal hormone and motility responses after a liquid meal test1

Esther Mans, Mateu Serra-Prat, Elisabet Palomera, Xavier Suñol, Pere Clavé

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


© 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Background: The relation between hunger, satiation, and integrated gastrointestinal motility and hormonal responses in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy has not been determined. Objective: The objective was to assess the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on hunger, satiation, gastric and gallbladder motility, and gastrointestinal hormone response after a liquid meal test. Design: Three groups were studied: morbidly obese patients (n = 16), morbidly obese patients who had had sleeve gastrectomy (n = 8), and nonobese patients (n = 16). The participants fasted for 10 h and then consumed a 200-mL liquid meal (400 kcal + 1.5 g paracetamol). Fasting and postprandial hunger, satiation, hormone concentrations, and gastric and gallbladder emptying were measured several times over 4 h. Results: No differences were observed in hunger and satiation curves between morbidly obese and nonobese groups; however, sleeve gastrectomy patients were less hungry and more satiated than the other groups. Antrum area during fasting in morbidly obese patients was statistically significant larger than in the nonobese and sleeve gastrectomy groups. Gastric emptying was accelerated in the sleeve gastrectomy group compared with the other 2 groups (which had very similar results). Gallbladder emptying was similar in the 3 groups. Sleeve gastrectomy patients showed the lowest ghrelin concentrations and higher early postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 peaks than did the other participants. This group also showed an improved insulin resistance pattern compared with morbidly obese patients. Conclusions: Sleeve gastrectomy seems to be associated with profound changes in gastrointestinal physiology that contribute to reducing hunger and increasing sensations of satiation. These changes include accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, and reduced ghrelin release, which together may help patients lose weight and improve their glucose metabolism after surgery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)540-547
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2015


  • CCK
  • Gastric emptying
  • Gastrointestinal motility
  • Ghrelin
  • GLP-1
  • Hunger
  • Morbid obesity
  • Satiation
  • Sleeve gastrectomy


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