© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Beyond cholesterol reduction, statins mediate their beneficial effects on stroke patients through pleiotropic actions. They have shown anti-inflammatory properties by a number of different mechanisms, including the inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity and the consequent increase and release of adhesion molecules. We have studied simvastatin's effects on the vascular enzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein 1 (SSAO/VAP-1), which is involved in stroke-mediated brain injury. SSAO/VAP-1 has leukocyte-binding capacity and mediates the expression of other adhesion proteins through signaling molecules generated by its catalytic activity. Our results indicate that soluble SSAO/VAP-1 is released into the bloodstream after an ischemic stimulus, in parallel with an increase in E-selectin and VCAM-1 and correlating with infarct volume. Simvastatin blocks soluble SSAO/VAP-1 release and prevents E-selectin and VCAM-1 overexpression as well. Simvastatin also effectively blocks SSAO/VAP-1-mediated leukocyte adhesion, although it is not an enzymatic inhibitor of SSAO in vitro. In addition, simvastatin-induced changes in adhesion molecules are greater in human brain endothelial cell cultures expressing SSAO/VAP-1, compared to those not expressing it, indicating some synergic effect with SSAO/VAP-1. We think that part of the beneficial effect of simvastatin in stroke is mediated by the attenuation of the SSAO/VAP-1-dependent inflammatory response.
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2018|
- Brain ischemia