This article extends the Human-scale Development methodology to include non-humans. We found this wider approach to be helpful in analysing the conflict of interest between fish farming and otter protection in the Natural Reserve of the Sado River estuary in Portugal. Our analysis of this environmental conflict goes beyond the anthropocentric view restricted to human needs to include all stakeholder needs, i.e. both human and non-human 'actants'. The needs-based analysis aims to ensure that local development strategies are more sustainable, improving interactions between all living beings, not just humans.© 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
- Environmental conflict
- Human needs theory