© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Background & Aims: The combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin and a nucleos(t)ide analogues has markedly reduced the rate of hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation; however, the optimal duration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin has not been clarified. This lack of consensus perpetuates the use of different strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated to hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation in a large cohort of patients under different hepatitis B immunoglobulin regimens. Methods: Retrospective multicentre analysis of hepatitis B virus-related liver transplantation recipients receiving combined prophylaxis (hepatitis B immunoglobulin + nucleos(t)ide analogues). The strategy of short-term hepatitis B immunoglobulin was compared to lifelong administration. Hepatitis B virus recurrence was defined as positive HBsAg after liver transplantation. Results: Three hundred and thirty-eight patients were analysed. After a median follow-up period of 72 months, 37 patients (11%) developed hepatitis B virus recurrence. Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and lamivudine resistance after liver transplantation were the only factors independently associated to hepatitis B virus recurrence (HR 5.4 [2.3-12] and 9.3 [4.2-20] respectively P <.001). HBsAg reappearance after hepatitis B virus recurrence was transient (16 patients), persistent (15) or alternant (6). The hepatitis B immunoglobulin regimen did not have an impact on the rate or evolution of hepatitis B virus recurrence. Overall, patient survival was good and not influenced by hepatitis B virus recurrence (82% at 5 years). Fulminant liver failure, hepatitis C coinfection or hepatocellular carcinoma at liver transplantation were independent risk factors for lower survival. Conclusions: Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for hepatitis B virus-related liver disease. Since the introduction of combined prophylaxis the rate of hepatitis B virus recurrence is very low. However, lifelong hepatitis B immunoglobulin administration does not seem necessary to reduce hepatitis B virus recurrence.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Nov 2018|
- HBV recurrence
- hepatitis B
- liver transplantation