Folds in ductile shear zones are common structures that have a variety of origins. These can be pre-existing folds that become modified or folds developed during the shearing event. Among the syn-shearing folds, a second subdivision is based on the relative age of the folded surface, which can be pre-existing or newly formed during the shearing event. In each of the three categories final fold geometry and orientation show complex relationships with the kinematic frame. The final fold geometry depends on the vorticity within the shear zone, the rheology and the initial orientation of the folded surface relative to the kinematic framework. It follows that folds are complex structures, difficult to use as kinematic indicators. However, in shear zones where undeformed wall rocks with pre-shear structures are accessible and where kinematics can be well established, folds can provide a valuable natural means to understand the initiation and evolution of structures under non-coaxial regimes. We point to the need of discriminating among different plausible categories, based on the nature of the folded surface and on the inherent structural features of each category. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Cap de Creus
- Shear zone