Serum neurofilament light chain predicts long-term prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome patients

Lorena Martín-Aguilar, Pol Camps-Renom, Cinta Lleixà, Elba Pascual-Goñi, Jordi Díaz-Manera, Ricardo Rojas-García, Noemi De Luna, Eduard Gallardo, Elena Cortés-Vicente, Laia Muñoz, Daniel Alcolea, Alberto Lleó, Carlos Casasnovas, Christian Homedes, Gerardo Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, María Concepción Jimeno-Montero, José Berciano, María José Sedano-Tous, Tania García-Sobrino, Julio Pardo-FernándezCeledonio Márquez-Infante, Iñigo Rojas-Marcos, Ivonne Jericó-Pascual, Eugenia Martínez-Hernández, Germán Morís De La Tassa, Cristina Domínguez-González, Isabel Illa, Luis Querol*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective To study baseline serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels as a prognostic biomarker in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Methods We measured NfL in serum (98 samples) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (24 samples) of patients with GBS prospectively included in the International GBS Outcome Study (IGOS) in Spain using single-molecule array (SiMoA) and compared them with 53 healthy controls (HCs). We performed multivariable regression to analyse the association between sNfL levels and functional outcome at 1 year. Results Patients with GBS had higher NfL levels than HC in serum (55.49 pg/mL vs 9.83 pg/mL, p<0.0001) and CSF (1308.5 pg/mL vs 440.24 pg/mL, p=0.034). Patients with preceding diarrhoea had higher sNfL than patients with respiratory symptoms or no preceding infection (134.90 pg/mL vs 47.86 pg/mL vs 38.02 pg/mL, p=0.016). sNfL levels correlated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome Disability Score and Inflammatory Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (I-RODS) at every timepoint. Patients with pure motor variant and Miller Fisher syndrome showed higher sNfL levels than patients with sensorimotor GBS (162.18 pg/mL vs 95.50 pg/mL vs 38.02 pg/mL, p=0.025). Patients with acute motor axonal neuropathy cute motor axonal neuropathy had higher sNfL levels than other variants (190.55 pg/mL vs 46.79 pg/mL, p=0.013). sNfL returned to normal levels at 1 year. High baseline sNfL levels were associated with inability to run (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.40, p=0.009) and lower I-RODS (β-2.60, 95% CI-4.66 to-0.54, p=0.014) at 1 year. Cut-off points predicting clinically relevant outcomes at 1 year with high specificity were calculated: inability to walk independently (>319 pg/mL), inability to run (>248 pg/mL) and ability to run (<34 pg/mL). Conclusion Baseline sNfL levels are increased in patients with GBS, are associated with disease severity and axonal variants and have an independent prognostic value in patients with GBS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-77
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of neurology, neurosurgery and psychiatry
Volume92
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021

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