The authors quantified serum lipoprotein (a) (Lp) (a) by enzymoimmunoanalysis in 86 outpatient men suffering peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and in 53 age-matched healthy men. They further measured serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, low density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol and serum apolipoprotein B. Serum triglycerides were significantly increased in patients with PVD versus controls (148 ± 8 and 114 ± 7 mg/dL, mean ± SEM). HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in patients versus controls (36 ± 1 and 43 ± 2 mg/dL, respectively). Serum Lp(a) levels in patients with PVD were 20 ± 2 mg/dL, whereas in controls they were 16 ± 3 (p: NS). Serum Lp(a) concentrations were identical in smoker and nonsmoker patients. There was no correlation between Lp(a) concentration and the other lipid parameters. Conversely, as occurs in coronary heart disease and in cerebrovascular disease, Lp(a) does not seem to be a marker for PVD, although a trend toward a higher mean levels was found. © 1991, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.