BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Plasma levels of cellular fibronectin (c-Fn) ≥3.6 μg/mL and of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) ≥140 ng/mL have been associated with parenchymal hematoma (PH) after treatment with tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this prospective study, we sought to validate the predictive capacity of the preestablished cutoff values of these biomarkers for PH in a larger series of patients. METHODS - We studied 134 patients treated with t-PA within 3 hours from symptom onset according to the SITS-MOST criteria (median time to infusion, 152 minutes; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 14) in 4 university hospitals. Hemorrhagic transformation was classified according to the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II definitions on computed tomography scans performed 24 to 36 hours after treatment. Relevant hemorrhagic transformation was defined as hemorrhagic infarction type 2 or any PH. Serum c-Fn and MMP-9 levels were determined by an ELISA om blood samples obtained before treatment. RESULTS - Cranial computed tomography showed hemorrhagic transformation in 27 patients (20%), hemorrhagic infarction in 15 (type 2 in 8 patients), and PH in 12 patients (symptomatic in 4). Serum c-Fn and MMP-9 concentrations at baseline were significantly higher in patients with relevant hemorrhagic transformation and PH than in those without (all P<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for PH by c-Fn levels ≥3.6 μg/mL were 100%, 60%, 20%, and 100%, respectively, whereas corresponding values were 92%, 74%, 26%, and 99% for MMP-9 levels ≥140 ng/mL. When both biomarkers were at levels above the cutoff points, specificity increased to 87% and the positive predictive value increased to 41%. CONCLUSIONS - This prospective study confirmed the high sensitivity and negative predictive value, with retained good specificity, of c-Fn and MMP-9 for the prediction of PH in patients treated with t-PA. Development of faster analytic methods will prove the applicability of these biomarkers in routine clinical practice. © 2007 American Heart Association, Inc.
- Blood-brain barrier
- Thrombolytic therapy