Seroprevalence and risk factors of swine influenza in Spain

M. Simon-Grifé, G. E. Martín-Valls, M. J. Vilar, I. García-Bocanegra, M. Mora, M. Martín, E. Mateu, J. Casal

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Swine influenza is caused by type A influenza virus. Pigs can be infected by both avian and human influenza viruses; therefore, the influenza virus infection in pigs is considered an important public health concern. The aims of present study were to asses the seroprevalence of swine influenza subtypes in Spain and explore the risk factors associated with the spread of those infections. Serum samples from 2151 pigs of 98 randomly selected farms were analyzed by an indirect ELISA for detection of antibodies against nucleoprotein A of influenza viruses and by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) using H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIV) as antigens. Data gathered in questionnaires filled for each farm were used to explore risk factors associated with swine influenza. For that purpose, data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equations method and, in parallel by means of a logistic regression. By ELISA, 92 farms (93.9%; CI95%: 89.1-98.7%) had at least one positive animal and, in total, 1340/2151 animals (62.3%; CI95%: 60.2-64.3%) were seropositive. A total of 1622 animals (75.4%; CI95%: 73.6-77.2%) were positive in at least one of the HI tests. Of the 98 farms, 91 (92.9%; CI95%: 87.7-98.1%) had H1N1 seropositive animals; 63 (64.3%; CI95%: 54.6-73.9%) had H1N2 seropositive pigs and 91 (92.9%; CI95%: 87.7-98.1%) were positive to H3N2. Mixed infections were detected in 88 farms (89.8; CI95%: 83.7-95.9%). Three risk factors were associated with seroprevalences of SIV: increased replacement rates in pregnancy units and, for fatteners, existence of open partitions between pens and uncontrolled entrance to the farm. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-63
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2011


  • Pigs
  • Risk factors
  • Seroprevalence
  • Spain
  • Swine influenza


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