© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for invasive mold infections (IMI). The goal of the study is to describe the incidence and outcome of IMI in patients after allo-HSCT in a large cohort of patients receiving anti-mold prophylaxis. We conducted a retrospective review of 988 consecutive adults who underwent allo-HSCT in our center from 2008 through 2014. Standard prophylaxis consisted of micafungin 150 mg IV daily from admission to day +7 ± 3 followed by voriconazole until day +75 to +100. Cases meeting criteria for proven or probable IMI according to EORTC-MSG criteria were included. Median age at HSCT was 54 years. The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 351, 36%) and lymphoid malignancies (n = 248, 25%). Matched related or unrelated donors (URD) were used in 686 (69%) patients, mismatched URD in 142 (14%) and cord blood units in 154 (16%). Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with IMI after allo-HSCT, 19 probable and 2 proven, and one patient was diagnosed postmortem. Microbiological diagnosis was established in 9 cases, 5 of them being Aspergillus. One-year cumulative incidence (CI) of IMI was 1.6% (95% CI 0.9-2.5) while 12-week overall survival after IMI was 39% (95% CI 24-65) Analyzed by disease, there was a trend for a higher 1-year CI of IMI in patients with ALL (5% [95% CI 1.6-11.4]) when compared with AML (1.4%), MDS (1.5%) and lymphoma (1.2%), P =.06. The 1-year CI of IMI after transplantation is low in patients receiving anti-mold prophylaxis with micafungin bridged to voriconazole, although these infections are associated with a higher risk of mortality.
- allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- invasive fungal infection