Two cases of infectious complications after liver biopsy are reported. Klebsiella pneumoniae and β-hemolytic Streptococcus were cultured. In both cases the biopsy was obtained under laparoscopic control. A 28-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis died 24 hours after liver biopsy as a result of septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A 67-year-old man with hepatic fibrosis suffered from transient bacteremia and recovered uneventfully after antibiotic therapy. In these patients, there was evidence to implicate pre-existing cholangitis as factor predisposing to postbiopsy bacteremia.