Sensitization to palladium in Europe

Joris Muris, An Goossens, Margarida Gonçalo, Andreas J. Bircher, Ana Giménez-Arnau, Caterina Foti, Magnus Bruze, Klaus Ejner Andersen, Thomas Rustemeyer, Albert J. Feilzer, Cornelis J. Kleverlaan

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    25 Citations (Scopus)


    © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Background Recently, sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf>) was found to be a more sensitive palladium patch test allergen than palladium dichloride (PdCl<inf>2</inf>). Objectives To determine the optimal test concentration of Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf>, to evaluate the prevalence of palladium sensitization with Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf> and PdCl<inf>2</inf>, and to compare the results with nickel sensitization in a European multicentre study. Materials and methods In addition to the European or national baseline series including NiSO<inf>4</inf>·6H<inf>2</inf>0 5% pet., consecutive patients were tested with PdCl<inf>2</inf> and Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf> 2%, 3% and 4% pet. in eight European dermatology clinics. The age and sex distributions were also evaluated in patients sensitized to nickel and palladium. Results In total, 1651 patients were tested. Relative to 3% Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf>, 4% Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf> did not add any information. Two per cent Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf> resulted in more doubtful reactions and showed suboptimal reactivity. The prevalence of palladium sensitization doubled with Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf> and was similar to that of nickel. Interestingly, in contrast to nickel sensitization, palladium sensitization was not related to female sex. Conclusions Three per cent Na<inf>2</inf>PdCl<inf>4</inf> pet. is the most suitable patch test concentration. Sensitization to palladium is almost as prevalent as sensitization to nickel. The sex distribution is different between nickel-sensitized and palladium-sensitized patients, suggesting different sources of exposure.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)11-19
    JournalContact Dermatitis
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


    • allergic contact dermatitis
    • cross-reactivity
    • epidemiology
    • metals
    • nickel
    • oral disease
    • palladium


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