Nanomagnets of controlled size, organized into regular patterns open new perspectives in the fields of nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum computation. Self-assembling processes on various types of substrates allow designing fine-structured architectures and tuning of their magnetic properties. Here, starting from a description of fundamental magnetic interactions at the nanoscale, we review recent experimental approaches to fabricate zero-, one-, and two-dimensional magnetic particle arrays with dimensions reduced to the atomic limit and unprecedented areal density. We describe systems composed of individual magnetic atoms, metal-organic networks, metal wires, and bimetallic particles, as well as strategies to control their magnetic moment, anisotropy, and temperature-dependent magnetic behavior. The investigation of self-assembled subnanometer magnetic particles leads to significant progress in the design of fundamental and functional aspects, mutual interactions among the magnetic units, and their coupling with the environment. Self-assembly processes allow designing magnetic architectures with tailored magnetic properties and dimensions that approach the ultimate atomic limit. Control of the geometry and internal structure of individual magnetic particles, combined with deep understanding of the underlying physical interactions, leads to fine tuning of functional aspects and opens new perspectives in nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum computation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
- magnetic materials