We identify those properties of a quantum channel that are relevant for cryptography. We focus on general key distribution protocols that use prepare and measure schemes and the existing classical reconciliation techniques, as these are the protocols feasible with current technology. Given a channel, we derive an easily computable necessary condition of security for such protocols. In spite of its simplicity, this condition is shown to be tight for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 and six-state protocols. We show that the condition becomes also sufficient in the event of a so-called collective attack. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
|Journal||Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2006|