Searching for new cell-penetrating agents: Hybrid cyclobutane-proline γ,γ-peptides

Esther Gorrea, Daniel Carbajo, Raquel Gutiérrez-Abad, Ona Illa, Vicen Branchadell, Miriam Royo, Rosa M. Ortuño

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Two generations of hybrid γ,γ-peptides containing cyclobutane amino acids and cis-γ-amino-l-proline joined in alternation have been synthesized and their capacity to cross the eukaryotic cell membrane has been evaluated. The first generation consists of di-, tetra- and hexapeptides, and their properties have been analyzed as well as the influence of peptide length and chirality of the cyclobutane residues. Results have shown that the absolute configuration of the cyclobutane amino acid does not have a relevant influence. The second generation consists of hybrid γ,γ-hexapeptides with a common backbone and distinct side chains introduced with different linkage types through the α-amino group (Nα) of the proline monomers. These peptides have been shown to be non-toxic towards HeLa cells and to internalize them effectively, the best results being obtained for the peptides with a spacer of five carbons between the Nα atom and the guanidinium group. The introduction of cyclobutane residues inside the sequence affords a good balance between charge and hydrophobicity, reducing the number of positive charges. This results in lower toxicity and similar cell-uptake properties when compared to previously described peptide agents. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4050-4057
JournalOrganic and Biomolecular Chemistry
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2012


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