Nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are widespread signaling molecules that regulate immunity in animals and plants. Levels of SNOs in vivo are controlled by nitric oxide synthesis (which in plants is achieved by different routes) and by S-nitrosoglutathione turnover, which is mainly performed by the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). GSNORis encoded by a single-copy gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; Martínez et al., 1996; Sakamoto et al., 2002). We report here that transgenic plants with decreased amounts of GSNOR (using antisense strategy) show enhanced basal resistance against Peronospora parasitica Noco2 (oomycete), which correlates with higher levels of intracellular SNOs and constitutive activation of the pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1. Moreover, systemic acquired resistance is impaired in plants overexpressing GSNOR and enhanced in the antisense plants, and this correlates with changes in the SNO content both in local and systemic leaves. We also show that GSNOR is localized in the phloem and, thus, could regulate systemic acquired resistance signal transport through the vascular system. Our data corroborate the data from other authors that GSNOR controls SNO in vivo levels, and shows that SNO content positively influences plant basal resistance and resistance-gene-mediated resistance as well. These data highlight GSNOR as an important and widely utilized component of resistance protein signaling networks conserved in animals and plants. © 2007 American Society of Plant Biologists.