Risk of introduction of lumpy skin disease in France by vectors in animal trucks

Saegerman Claude, Bertagnoli Séphane, Meyer Gilles, Ganière Jean-Pierre, Caufour Philippe, De Clercq Kris, Jacquiet Philippe, Fournié Guillaume, Hautefeuille Claire, Étoré Florence, Casal Jordi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review


© 2018 L'Association pour l'Etude de l'Epidemiologie des Maladies Animales. All Rights Reserved. The lumpy skin disease virus (VDNC) is a dsDNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family and the Capripoxvirus genus. Lumpy skin diseases (DNC) is a highly contagious transboundary disease in cattle producing major economic losses. In 2014, the disease was first reported in the European Union (in Cyprus); it was then reported in 2015 (in Greece) and has spread through different Balkan countries in 2016. Indirect vector transmission is predominant at small distances, but transmission between distant herds and between countries usually occurs through movements of infected cattle or through vectors found mainly in animal trucks. In order to estimate the threat for France due to the introduction of vectors found in animal trucks (cattle or horses) from at-risk countries (Balkans and neighbours), a quantitative import risk analysis (QIRA) model was developed according to the international standard [OIE, 2004]. Using stochastic QIRA modelling and combining experimental/field data and expert opinion, the yearly risk of VDNC being introduced by stable flies [Stomoxys calcitrans], that travel in trucks transporting animals was between 2 × 10 -5 and 4.4 × 10 -3 with a median value of 53 × 10 -5 ; it was mainly due to the risk related to insects entering farms in France from vehicles transporting cattle from the at-risk area. The risk related to the transport of cattle going to slaughterhouses or the transport of horses was much lower (between 1 × 10 -7 and 2,7 × 10 -5 and between 1 × 10 -8 and 1,67 × 10 -6 for cattle and horses, respectively). The disinsectisation of trucks transporting live animals was important to reduce this risk. The development of a stochastic QIRA made it possible to quantify the risk of DNC being introduced in France through the import of vectors that travel in trucks transporting animals. This tool is of prime importance because the DNC situation in the Balkans is continuously changing. Indeed, this model can be updated to process new information on vectors and the changing health situation, in addition to new data from the TRAde Control and Expert System (TRACES, EU database). This model is easy to adapt to different countries and to other vectors and diseases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-174
JournalEpidemiologie et Sante Animale
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


  • Cattle
  • France
  • Horse
  • Lumpy skin disease (DNC)
  • Quantitative import risk assessment
  • Risk assessment
  • Stomoxe (Stomoxys calcitrans)
  • Vectors


Dive into the research topics of 'Risk of introduction of lumpy skin disease in France by vectors in animal trucks'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this