© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Background: The optimal length of cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in lung transplantation according to CMV serostatus is not well established. Methods: We have performed a prospective, observational, multicenter study to determine the incidence of CMV infection and disease in 92 CMV-seropositive lung transplant recipients (LTR), their related outcomes and risk factors, and the impact of prophylaxis length. Results: At 18 months post transplantation, 37 patients (40%) developed CMV infection (23 [25%]) or disease (14 [15.2%]). Overall mortality was higher in patients with CMV disease (64.3% vs 10.2%; P<.001), but only one patient died from CMV disease. In the multivariate analysis, CMV disease was an independent death risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 18.214, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.120-80.527; P<.001). CMV disease incidence was higher in patients with 90-day prophylaxis than in those with 180-day prophylaxis (31.3% vs 11.8%; P=.049). Prophylaxis length was an independent risk factor for CMV disease (OR 4.974, 95% CI 1.231-20.094; P=.024). Sixteen patients withdrew from prophylaxis because of adverse events. Conclusion: CMV infection and disease in CMV-seropositive LTR remain frequent despite current prophylaxis. CMV disease increases mortality, whereas 180-day prophylaxis reduces the incidence of CMV disease.
- lung transplantation