The rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation of endocyclic monoterpenes, that is, 2-carene (1), 3-carene (2), and α-pinene (3), in the presence of PPh3 or various diphosphines and phosphites has been studied. The unmodified Rh catalyst promotes an intense isomerization of both carenes whose hydroformylation occurs rather slowly, and results in a complex mixture of aldehydes and alcohols. The addition of PPh3, diphosphines or P(OPh)3 in a P/Rh ratio as high as 20, efficiently prevents the isomerization, but the activity for hydroformylation is drastically reduced. On the other hand, the use of a bulky P(O-o-tBuPh)3 ligand both reduces the isomerization, and significantly increases the hydroformylation rate. All three sterically crowded olefins 1-3 have been efficiently hydroformylated under relatively mild reaction conditions (80-100 °C, 40-80 atm) to a main aldehyde (2-formylcarane, 4-formylcarane, and 3-formylpinene, respectively) with good chemo- and regioselectivity, and almost 100% stereoselectivity for the trans isomers. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Bulky phosphite
- Rhodium catalyst