© 2016 AEU Objective To compare various conservative treatment options for high-grade T1 nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the preferred intravesical treatment for high-grade T1 tumours; however, a number of experts still question the need for maintenance BCG. Material and methods We retrospectively analysed data from 1039 patients with primary and recurrent T1G3 NMIBC. All patients underwent complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT), with muscle in the sample and multiple bladder biopsies. The patients were treated with the following: only one initial TURBT (n = 108), re-TURBT (n = 153), induction with 27 mg of BCG (Connaught strain) (n = 87), induction with 81 mg of BCG (n = 489) or induction with 81 mg of BCG + maintenance (n = 202). The time to first recurrence, progression (to T2 or greater or to metastatic disease) and specific mortality of the disease was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival function and were compared using the log-rank test and the Cox multivariate regression model of proportional risks. Results The mean follow-up was 62 ± 39 months. The risk of recurrence was significantly lower for the patients treated with maintenance therapy of 81 mg of BCG than in the other treatment groups (P<.001). The risk of tumour progression was also significantly lower for the patients treated with maintenance BCG than for the patients treated only with one TURBT, re-TURBT and with induction therapy with 27 mg of BCG (P=.0003). The specific disease mortality was significantly lower with BCG maintenance (9.4%) than with only one TURBT (27.8%; P=.003). Conclusions In the case of T1G3 NMIBC, a complete dose of BCG with maintenance is associated with better recurrence results than are other conservative treatment modalities. The results of progression and survival specific to the disease were also better with induction BCG, with or without maintenance.
- Bacille Calmette-Guérin
- Maintenance therapy
- Nonmuscle-invasive bladder tumour
- T1G3 urothelial carcinoma
- Transurethral resection of bladder tumour