Resonators with integrated CMOS circuitry for mass sensing applications, fabricated by electron beam lithography

S. Ghatnekar-Nilsson, E. Forsén, G. Abadal, J. Verd, F. Campabadal, F. Pérez-Murano, J. Esteve, N. Barniol, A. Boisen, L. Montelius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


A resonator system has been fabricated directly on a pre-processed CMOS chip. The system is to be used for high sensitivity mass sensing applications in air and vacuum. The resonator system, corresponding of a cantilever and structures for electrostatic actuation and capacitive read-out, have been defined by electron beam lithography on top of a charge and radiation sensitive CMOS layer in predefined areas as a post-process step. This has been accomplished without affecting the electronic properties of the pre-processed CMOS circuits. The subsequent etching steps to fully release the cantilevers have been obtained without stiction of the cantilevers to the substrate. Cantilevers are driven at their mechanical resonance in a lateral mode, and the frequency is monitored by capacitive read-out on the chip. CMOS integration enables signal detection directly on the chip, which radically decreases the parasitic capacitances. Consequently, low-noise electrical measurements with a very high mass sensitivity are obtained. Fabricated resonator systems were characterized to have resonance frequencies of approximately 1.49 MHz, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimation of 1.41 MHz. The theoretical mass resolution, ∂m/∂f, is approximately 17 ag Hz-1, using a Young modulus value of 160 GPa.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-102
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005


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