Resolution of opiate illicit drugs signals in the presence of some cutting agents with use of a voltammetric sensor array and machine learning strategies

Dionisia Ortiz-Aguayo, Xavier Cetó, Karolien De Wael, Manel del Valle*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

In the present work, the resolution and quantification of mixtures of different opiate compounds in the presence of common cutting agents using an electronic tongue (ET) is evaluated. More specifically, ternary mixtures of heroin, morphine and codeine were resolved in the presence of caffeine and paracetamol. To this aim, an array of three carbon screen-printed electrodes were modified with different ink-like solutions of graphite, cobalt (II) phthalocyanine and palladium, and their responses towards the different drugs were characterized by means of square wave voltammetry (SWV). Developed sensors showed a good performance with good linearity at the µM level, LODs between 1.8 and 5.3 µM for the 3 actual drugs, and relative standard deviation (RSD) ca. 2% for over 50 consecutive measurements. Next, a quantitative model that allowed the identification and quantification of the individual substances from the overlapped voltammograms was built using partial least squares regression (PLS) as the modeling tool. With this approach, quantification of the different drugs was achieved at the μM level, with a total normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 0.084 for the test subset.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131345
Number of pages10
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Volume357
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2022

Keywords

  • Electronic tongue
  • Opioids
  • Partial-least squares regression
  • Voltammetric sensors

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