© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains ≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg despite therapy with ≥3 full-dose antihypertensive drugs (classical definition=CD). A definition proposed subsequently (new definition=ND) includes patients requiring ≥4 drugs irrespective of BP values. We aimed to evaluate whether both definitions characterize the same kind of patients.One hundred and twenty-four consecutively attended patients with RH were classified into two groups according to their BP control: 66 patients had non-controlled BP (all those who met the CD criteria plus a few patients who met the ND criteria); 58 patients had controlled BP (all with RH according to the ND). Clinical, laboratory and office BP data were recorded. RH patients with non-controlled BP were more frequently diabetic (72% vs 49%), and had higher plasmatic glucose (149 vs 130 mg dl -1), cholesterol (179 vs 164 mg dl -1), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (107 vs 95 mg dl -1) and triglyceride (169 vs 137 mg dl -1) levels; P<0.05 for all comparisons. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that independently associated with non-controlled BP were diabetes (P=0.001) and higher LDL-cholesterol (P=0.007).We conclude that, although both cohorts of patients are phenotypically quite similar, uncontrolled RH patients have higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and higher LDL-cholesterol levels than controlled RH patients.