© 2018, The Author(s). In the context of refinement of frameworks over the past decades within the domain of mathematics education research on language, the development of more nuanced theories is a challenge. In this issue of ZDM, a number of researchers present their work of exploration and elaboration of theories for the study and understanding of language in mathematics education. Since various relevant frameworks are present in the collection of papers, we use them to consider and evaluate the existing ontology. We aim to answer the following questions: What theories and concepts are visible in the papers? What are the works of some of the authors and terms that seem to be interpreted differently? What does this complexity imply for research in mathematics education? From the answers to these questions, we conclude that the domain can be characterised by its complexity, diversity, and contention. All three phenomena together seem to have the potential to be a strength for the progress of the domain.
- Mathematics education and language
- Research frameworks