Rennet-Induced Casein Micelle Aggregation Models: A Review

Daniel Salvador, Yoseli Acosta, Anna Zamora, Manuel Castillo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Two phases are generally recognized in the enzymatic coagulation of milk: hydrolysis and aggregation, although nowadays more and more researchers consider the non-enzymatic phase to actually be a stage of gel formation made up of two sub-stages: micellar aggregation and hardening of the three-dimensional network of para-κ-casein. To evaluate this controversy, the main descriptive models have been reviewed. Most of them can only model micellar aggregation, without modeling the hardening stage. Some are not generalizable enough. However, more recent models have been proposed, applicable to a wide range of conditions, which could differentiate both substages. Manufacturing quality enzymatic cheeses in a cost-effective and consistent manner requires effective control of coagulation, which implies studying the non-enzymatic sub-stages of coagulation separately, as numerous studies require specific measurement methods for each of them. Some authors have recently reviewed the micellar aggregation models, but without differentiating it from hardening. Therefore, a review of the proposed models is necessary, as coagulation cannot be controlled without knowing its mechanisms and the stages that constitute it.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1243
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2022


  • clotting time
  • coagulation time
  • enzymatic coagulation
  • gel assembly
  • gel firming
  • gel hardening
  • gelation time
  • hydrolysis
  • micellar aggregation
  • κ-casein


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