Regional differences in treatment response and three year course of schizophrenia across the world

Diego Novick, Josep Maria Haro, Jihyung Hong, Roberto Brugnoli, Jean Pierre Lepine, Jordan Bertsch, Jamie Karagianis, Martin Dossenbach, Enric Alvarez

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16 Citations (Scopus)


Data from the Worldwide-Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (W-SOHO) study was used to determine the frequency of response and describe the course of disease in outpatients with schizophrenia in different regions of the world. The W-SOHO study was a 3-year, prospective, observational study that included over 17,000 outpatients with schizophrenia from 37 countries classified into six regions (Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, Central & Eastern Europe, North Africa & Middle East). Cox proportional-hazards regression was employed to assess the factors associated with response. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of disease course. We found that approximately two-thirds of the patients (66.4%) achieved response during the 3-year follow up. Response rates varied across regions, and were highest in North Africa & Middle East (84.6%) and Latin America (78.6%) and lowest in Southern Europe (62.1%) and East Asia (60.9%). There were significant differences between the regions in the proportion of patients experiencing continuous remission, remission plus relapse and a persistent symptomatic course, and between the regions in the duration of remission. Overall, Latin America, East Asia, and North Africa & Middle East had more favorable outcomes because they had the largest proportion of people who achieved continuous remission, the longest time in remission and lowest percentage with a persistent symptomatic course. Having good social functioning at baseline was consistently associated with better clinical outcome. These results seem to indicate that patients from Latin America, East Asia, North Africa & Middle East may have a more favorable disease course than patients from European nations. © 2012.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)856-864
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


  • Course
  • Observational
  • Region
  • Response
  • Schizophrenia
  • World


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